Open Education Sweden by Ebba Ossiannilsson

Sweden has a longstanding tradition of high quality education and it has dedicated great efforts into opening up their educational models and materials. Here you will find an overview on education in Sweden, the historical and political background, and a summary of Open Education Initiatives in Sweden. This country report for Sweden was written by Dr. Ebba Ossiannilsson, a Swedish researcher, advisor, and consultant with great expertise in open education and e-learning. This Article was written on 2017-02-07.


Sweden has always been at the forefront of democracy, education for all, access, democracy, gender, equity, inclusion, lifelong learning, and digitization. The country has promoted the involvement of everyone in education at anytime and anywhere through any device to pre-pare for the Future We All Want, which is in line with the goals of UNESCO 2030 regarding governmental partnership, open access, and digitization, which are addressed in this report. Although these goals are of the highest priority in Sweden, no specific national policy or strat-egy for open educational resources (OER) yet exists. However, because of the increasing openness regarding learners taking the lead, many challenges have been placed on the na-tional agenda.

The Swedish context

Sweden has a rich historical heritage, natural beauty, and a four-season climate. Sweden’s population has increased greatly in recent years. As of January 2017, the population was 10 million.

Sweden has always been at the forefront of democracy, education for all, access, democracy, gender, equity, inclusion, lifelong learning, and digitization. The country has promoted the involvement of everyone in education at anytime and anywhere through any device to prepare for the Future We All Want, which is in line with the goals of UNESCO 2030 regarding governmental partnership, open access, and digitization, which are addressed in this report. Although these goals are of the highest priority in Sweden, no specific national policy or strategy for open educational resources (OER) yet exists. However, because of the increasing openness regarding learners taking the lead, many challenges have been placed on the national agenda.

This report begins by describing the open government partnership of Sweden, the Digitization Commission, and open access, which is in line with overall national policies. A description of the educational system in Sweden, including folkbildning, K-12, and higher education is then provided, which is followed by some examples of national initiatives in Sweden. Lastly, some perspectives on the future are considered. Although this report is not comprehensive, it draws attention to the most important points in OER.

Open Government Partnership: Sweden (1)

Logotype for the Open Government Partnership
Logotype for the Open Government Partnership

Sweden joined the Open Government Partnership (OGP) in 2011. Since then, it has published two action plans and reaffirmed its commitment to open government both in principle and in practice.

Sweden has a long tradition of transparency and citizen engagement in its efforts to build an effective and accountable government. Confidence and trust are among the most important pillars of Swedish democracy. The Swedish principle of public access to official documents guarantees the public and the media an unimpeded view of the activities pursued by the government and local authorities. An efficient, accessible administration and well-managed public finances are the foundation of the Swedish model.

The Government of Sweden is currently running a four-year implementation program called Digital First. The program is designed to implement the goals of the government’s strategy for enhanced digital collaboration in public administration, which is entitled Bringing the Citizen to the Heart of Government (Medborgaren i Centrum). A central objective of this strategy is an increasingly open government that supports innovation and participation, including easy access to open data, as well as opportunities for third parties to engage in policy implementation and to provide the government with digital services. An integral part of Digital First is to promote open government through digital channels. Several agencies have been tasked with digitizing specific public value chains, such as a smart planning and building process, the smart use of environmental information, a smart food chain, and a smart business administration. The assignments include enhancing data maturity, open data, and open innovation within the value chain.

The Swedish government has created a council for the digital transformation of the Swedish public sector. This Council serves as a forum for coordinating authorities at both national and local levels. Vinnova, Sweden’s innovation agency, and various institutions, enterprises, and organizations can apply for financial support in making their data public. Vinnova has previously built a national portal for open data, The portal is now under the auspices of the National Archives (Riksarkivet) as part of its general assignment to promote open data, which is discussed in detail later in this report. Several agencies and municipalities have taken initiatives to publish open data and promote its reuse. For example, meteorological datasets, geographical data, traffic data, and open data on cities are freely available to the public. The release of such data has led to the creation of several applications. At Stockholm University, eGovlab focuses on developing applications that facilitate open and smart government. Several other digital innovation hubs are also involved in data-driven innovation in the public sector.

The Digitalization Commission

In 2012, the Government of Sweden established the Digitization Commission to analyze and monitor the progress meeting the information and communication technology (ICT) policy goal of Sweden being the best in the world in exploiting the opportunities of digitization. The Commission is also tasked with developing proposals for new policy actions, highlighting the benefits associated with the digital transformation, and sharing best practices.

Logotype for the Digitization Commission
Logotype for the Digitization Commission

The Digitization Commission has published several reports, some of which have implications for the effects on education and openness. Because they are in Swedish, the six titles are translated as follows:

Two official governmental investigations

  • For Digitization in Time [För digitalisering i tiden] (SOU, 2016)
  • The Effects of Digitization on Individuals and Society [Digitaliseringens effekter på individ och samhälle] (SOU, 2016).

Four thematic reports

  • The role of higher education in a digital time [Temarapport 4 Den högre utbildningens roll i en digital tid December 2016]
  • Digitization for a sustainable climate [Temarapport 3 Digitalisering för ett hållbart klimat november 2016]
  • The social contract in a digital time [Temarapport 2 Det sociala kontraktet i en digital tid oktober 2016]
  • The computer-based society [Temarapport 1 Det datordrivna samhället juni 2016]

Open Access in Sweden (2)

Researchers who are financed by the Swedish Research Council must publish in open access, so that anyone using the internet can freely read and download the research results. Researchers can archive previously published articles in openly searchable databases, or they can publish directly in web-based journals that practice open access. They must archive the article in an openly searchable database immediately after or within at least six months of its publication in a traditional journal. Researchers holding grants in the educational sciences or humanities and social sciences should publish in parallel with an open access database within twelve months.

Benefitsofopenaccess cc-by logo.pd eng
Open Access in Sweden (CC-BY Danny Kingsley & Sarah Brown)
The program promotes open access to the works produced by Swedish researchers, teachers, and students. This access is facilitated by supporting publishing in open access repositories and Open Access journals at Swedish institutions of higher education through the following:

  • Information and advice
  • Development of infrastructure and services
  • Policy coordination is administered by the National Library of Sweden (KB), and it is the Swedish node in the EU-funded project OpenAIRE.(3)

Education in Sweden

Throughout medieval Europe, the education systems were similar. In Sweden, with the exception of Scania, which established a school in Lund Cathedral in 1085 (part of Denmark at that time), the Swedish education system originated in the 1200s. In that period, the training was conducted by three bodies: cathedral chapters, monasteries, and towns. In the move to a national system, Sweden implemented its first National Education Act in 1571. In the Reformation, education was influenced by the humanities, in which the teaching of Christianity was interspersed with that of classical literature, such as Virgil’s works.

Popular (Liberal) Adult Education (Folkbildning)

Sweden has a long tradition of universal education, which has always been considered a human right and valued as essential in a democratic society. Popular (liberal) adult education (folkbildning) also has a long history and tradition in the country, including colleges and adult education. It is characterized as “free and voluntary,” that is, free from governmental control and optional for participants. However, folkbildning has often been given a central role in the state’s education and cultural policies. Folkbildning is an umbrella term that refers to people’s understanding and orientation in areas beyond their specialties and skills. It is defined in relation to both academic specialization and training. The content of folkbildning varies widely per the needs of society and the life goals of individuals. In today’s hightech information society, public education has a different meaning and different conditions. Its role has shifted to providing clarity and structure to the chaotic flow of information, widening perspectives, improving quality of life, and increasing tolerance in facing the unknown in the public realm. The concept of a holistic view of life is rooted in the history of public education.

The responsibility for the allocation of government grants and the evaluation of activities in this area lies with Folkbildningsrådet (FBR), that is, the Adult Education Council. This nonprofit organization has three members: the Adult Education Association, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR, in Swedish SKL), and the Interest Organization for Movement Folk High Schools (RIO).

Education K-12 (4)

In Sweden, the concept of free and compulsory primary education has long been recognized, but it was realized only in the 1800s after lively debates among representatives including Geijer, Tegner, Silfverstolpe, Sahlström, and Prince Oscar (later King Oscar I). At the beginning of the 1900s, the educational debate was dominated by the famous reformer and feminist Ellen Key, who was at the forefront of social movements, including education for all. In 1842, the Swedish Parliament introduced elementary school (folkskola), which was a four-year program that provided basic education for children.

The Swedish National Agency for Education is the central administrative authority in the public-school system, which includes pre-schooling, school-aged childcare, and adult education. The National Agency for Education is led by the director-general. To enhance quality and gain the acceptance of society, the government appointed an advisory council. From the age of six years, every child has equal access to free education in Sweden. The Swedish school system is regulated through the Education Act, which ensures a safe and friendly environment for students. The Act mandates nine compulsory years of school attendance for all children from the age of seven years.

The quality of Swedish education has been keenly debated over the past decade. Several reforms have been implemented in recent years in Sweden, which are aimed at improving students’ results and raising the status of the teaching profession. After several surveys conducted by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) with falling earnings Swedish 15 year olds have now their skills improved, and currently their performance is average or above average of OECD countries. Students’ outcomes in reading and mathematics have improved and there are signs of similar results in science. Sweden has also improved the performance and raised the status of the teaching profession, which has resulted in long-term benefits for the educational sector and for the society. However, the relevance of PISA surveys has been questioned by educators and policy makers both in Sweden and abroad. Critics of the standardized tests argue that the studies are too focused on mathematics and science, and they exclude areas of education that stimulate personal growth, morality, and creativity. Nevertheless, while the debate between the critics and defenders of PISA continues, the Swedish government is exploring ways to improve the education system. It has turned to its neighbor Finland, but it has also investigated the South Korean education system, in which teachers’ salaries are high, and the Netherlands, where class sizes are typically smaller than in Sweden.

Information and communication technology (ICT): Their importance for learning

The curriculum for compulsory education ensures that every student can use modern technology as a tool in knowledge-seeking, communication, creativity, and learning. The curriculum for upper secondary schools is similar. In the school years 4–6 (mellanstadiet), 17 percent of students have access to their own computer at school and 71 percent have access to their own computer at home. For students in the school years 7–9 (högstadiet), 34 percent have access to their own computer at school and 87 percent have access to their own computer at home. At the upper secondary level (years 10–12), 94 percent of students have access to their own computer either at school or at home. In addition, many students also use smart phones and tablets. Around 94 percent of all schoolchildren in Sweden have said that they have access to the internet at school.

The research project Unos Uno (one computer for each pupil), which was conducted from 2010 to 2013, showed that the abilities and performance of both students and teachers could be improved by using computer technology in teaching. The implementation of this finding required educational development and effective leadership in schools. Some examples of the positive effects are the following:

  • Pupils’ key skills significantly improved in searching for information, writing, and presenting the results of their work.
  • Pupils showed measurable improvements in reading skills and writing skills.
  • Students developed self-confidence through the ability to write readable and fact-based reports.
  • Teachers’ skills developed when they utilized technological opportunities.
  • The contact between teachers and students increased and its quality was improved.
  • Two thirds of the students and teachers were satisfied and experienced positive results.

Both teachers and learners use daily free open available resources for teaching and learning.

Higher Education in Sweden

Because of its emphasis on independent studies, Sweden is ranked among the world leaders in higher education. The teaching model applied at Swedish universities and university colleges is expressed in the motto “freedom with responsibility.” Students have somewhat less teacher-led time than in other systems of higher education, mainly pursuing their studies on their own or in groups. Sweden also aims to have one of the most research-intensive university systems in the world. The uptake in higher education among Swedes has risen sharply over the last few years. In the autumn term of 2012, there was a record 126,000 first-time applicants to higher education in Sweden. A total of 403,000 people applied, and 257,000 were admitted. Over 50 university colleges, universities, and private training providers (HEI) offer a variety of higher education courses (see the map in Figure 4). For example, in the Stockholm area there are several HEIs. Universities and university colleges have three main tasks: to conduct education and research; to collaborate with the surrounding society; and to ensure that research findings can have an impact.

Higher Education Institutions in Sweden
Higher Education Institutions in Sweden

The Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) (5) is a government agency. Its operations are controlled by the government through the instructions it issues. These instructions define the areas of responsibility and the tasks to be undertaken. Their operations comprise three main areas:

  • Quality assurance of higher education and appraisal of the degree-awarding powers of higher education institutions in the public sector.
  • Legal supervision of higher education.
  • Monitoring efficiency, follow up, horizon scanning, and responsibility for statistics in the higher education sector.

Open Education Initiatives in Sweden

Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE) (6)

The Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE) is a professional organization for all those involved in distance learning and flexible learning in Sweden, including open education, OER, and MOOCs. SADE was founded in 1984 with the mandate of broadening the knowledge and development of flexible education and distance learning. The members of SADE meet colleagues from schools, universities, organizations, and companies in the education sector in Sweden. SADE gives them opportunities to build personal networks and establish important contacts.

Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE)
The logotype of the Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE)

SADE activities include the following:

  • Initiate the exchange of experience and cooperation between members.
  • Create open communities by organizing conferences and seminars.
  • Promote international exchanges and cooperation.
  • Stimulate the development of knowledge in the areas of distance learning and flexible learning.
  • Contribute to the development of the area monitored by the governing body.
BOLDIC project logotype
BOLDIC project logotype

SADE coordinated the BOLDIC (Open Learning Resources Online) project, which was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers for over ten years. The general purpose of this project was to deepen and extend the cooperation between Nordic and Baltic organizations for distance education, flexible learning, and e-learning by opening the community of new partners from both the Baltic and the Nordic countries. SADE aims to continue and develop the earlier project, BOLDIC Perspectives Online.

One of the aims of BOLDIC is to nominate and award good examples both in the Baltic region and worldwide.

EdTech Sweden (7)

EdTech Sweden mainly arranges conferences and hearings for decision makers in higher education, corporate education, adult education, government, business, and politics. Educational technology is utilized to increase performance cost-effectively and create a modern structure that will meet future skills requirements. EdTech is concerned with competitiveness at the individual, organizational, and national levels.

EdTech Sweden considers that it is time to move from words to action to create an arena for the understanding and use of educational technology, as well as ensuring that educational managers and policy makers understand the importance of the “switch.” It is necessary to coordinate expertise in developing solutions that work and strategies for how they are implemented, which will empower the learning processes at all levels.

Swedish Radio and TV

There are many ways to freely watch, and listen to programs broadcast by the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company (Utbildningsradion Skola UR) such as the Knowledge Channel (Kunskapskanalen), the Swedish Televison, channels (Sveriges Television SVT) channels, and The Swedish Radio (Utbildningsradion UR). Many of those free resources are frequently used on daily base in education, but also by people in general.

OER in Sweden (8)

In Sweden, there is a growing interest in open publication and the sharing of open educational resources, but the pace of development remains rather slow, especially on policy and strategies. Moreover, universities, academic management, and teaching staff have many questions about OER. Teachers in all educational sectors require support and guidance to be able to use OER pedagogically and with the focus on quality. To realize the full potential of OER in students’ learning, it is not enough to make use OER randomly. These resources must be applied in context.

Logotype for OER Sweden
Logotype for OER Sweden

Since 2010, two national projects on open educational resources (OER) have been conducted: the first project (2010–2011) was on OER resources for learning, which was financed by the National Library of Sweden (9). The second project was on open opportunities for learning, which was financed by the Internet Foundation in Sweden (2012–2013).

The aim of the first project was mainly concerned the dissemination of OER: why, how, and for whom. The project was mainly conducted through webinars and seminars. Nine universities, led by Linneaus University and Lund University, were involved in the OER network. The project stimulated an open discussion about collaboration in addressing issues regarding the infrastructure of open online knowledge sharing. The latter project, a network of ten universities led by Karlstad University arranged a series of open webinars during the project, which focused on the use and production of OER. A virtual platform for Swedish OER initiatives and resources was developed. The project focused on the effects of OER on teacher trainers and decision makers.

The objectives of the project were as follows:

  • Increase the level of national collaboration between universities and educational organizations in the use and production of OER.
  • Find effective online methods to support teachers and students in terms of the quality, technology, and retrievability of OER.
  • Raise awareness of the potential of webinars as a tool for open online learning.
  • Increase the level of collaboration between universities’ support functions and foster national resource sharing, with a base in modern library and educational technology units.
  • Contribute to the creation of a national university structure for the tagging, distribution, and storage of OER.

The webinars focused on the following areas:

  • Digital literacy in higher education as a prerequisite for OER
  • Bonus Presskopia (Swedish reproduction rights organization)
  • What OER are and how to work with them
  • Collaboration between UR () and universities
  • Quality in e-learning
  • The digital library
  • International trends in OER
  • Metadata and standards

Although both projects are completed, the network and the webpage OER Sverige continue to operate. The network still runs webinars that reach not only a nation-wide target group but also learners abroad, especially if they are in English. The objectives of both projects were achieved.


The project Policies for OER Uptake (POERUP) was partially funded by the EU from late 2011 until the end of June 2014, under the EU Lifelong Learning Programme Key Activity 3 ICT, which was led by Sero Consulting. Researchers from Sweden contributed to the POERUP project by compiling a comprehensive Swedish report.(11)

Logotype for POERUP
Logotype for POERUP


The project Adult Education and Open Educational Resources (ADOERUP) consisted of a study conducted by Sero Consulting to produce a “Note” (i.e., a short brief) (13) for the European Parliament Culture and Education Committee on the use and potential of OER for adult education and adult learning. Swedish reserachers contributed by compiling a comprehensive report on ADOERUP in Sweden.(14)

LangOER (15)

Logotype for LangOER
Logotype for LangOER

Swedish Universities (e.g. University of Gothenburg) was involved in the 3-year network (January 2014- December 2016) supported by action KA2 Languages of the Lifelong Learning Programme, European Commission. The project aimed to investigate how less used languages, including regional and minority languages, benefit from Open Educational Practices (OEP), and how OER) can be shaped to foster linguistic and cultural diversity in Europe. In addition, the project aimed to investigate what policies are favorable for the uptake of quality OER in less used language communities.


NordicOER LogoSwedish Universities (e.g. Lund University) was involved in the 2-year network on NordicOER in 2013-2015, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The project build on the Nordic OER Alliance which was a network of individuals representing stakeholders and institutions supporting uptake, adoption and collaboration around Open Education Resources. The Alliance had a 3 – 5 year perspective, and planned actions to sustain a broad awareness, knowledge building and networking platform.

The main objectives were to:

  • contribute in utilizing OER for educational development in the Nordic countries and to enable and support collaborative actions in these countries
  • contribute to global educational development
  • support the implementation of the Paris OER Declaration and future EU OER initiatives in the Nordic countries
  • analyse opportunities and barriers for a successful implementation of the Paris Declaration as well as current EU strategies to provide guidance for policy makers in governments, institutions and organizations
  • build and exchange knowledge on OER and OEP in the Nordic Region as a basis for good practices, inspiration for policy building and policy implementation

MOOCS in Sweden lang (16)

Massive open online courses (MOOC) have been conducted in Sweden since 2013. However, the precursors of MOOCs were first offered in 2003, mainly at Swedish universities and colleges. An example of an early MOOC is the KTH Royal Technical University and Stockholm University joint preparatory course Sommar Matte (summer maths), which has been held since 2003 with an intake per course of 10,000 participants. The course is based on a combination of automatic correction and group assignments that students solve together. Another early pioneer of MOOCs was Jönköping University College, which offered two courses, Digital Imaging and Photography – Visual Communication, both of which were taken by 25,000 students between 2007 and 2012. The courses included a large amount of video-based instruction that was tutored largely by former participants. The examination was based on students’ written reflections on their learning. Karlstad University was also an early provider of MOOC-inspired courses in collaboration with the National Agency for Education with technical support from Lillehammer University College. Courses on assessment and rating were offered to practicing teachers and as of June 2015, nearly 20,000 participants had registered in these and other courses:

  • Assessment and Rating Grades 4–6
  • Assessment and Rating Grades 7–9
  • Understanding Customer Experience
  • Mastering Service Innovation
  • Making Sense of Service Logic

However, although Sweden had a head start in e-learning, the development of MOOCs has been slow compared with other countries because of the lack of interest from government agencies and educational organizations. In spring 2015, the government commissioned the UKÄ to analyze the opportunities and the obstacles to the introduction of web-based open courses (i.e., MOOCs) in Swedish colleges. UKÄ also explored ways that the educational programs, including open online education, could be broadened. UKÄ’s mission included developing proposals for ways in which MOOCs could be accommodated within Swedish universities and the consequences of their inclusion in the post-secondary curriculum. The investigation was completed in 2016. UKÄ stated that Swedish universities and colleges as well as universities in other countries should be given the opportunity to organize open online education in the form of MOOCs. UKÄ also said that the courses should include new opportunities to provide knowledge to large groups in society and that such courses could help to tackle major societal challenges. An example is the current challenge of integrating people fleeing their countries and seeking refuge in Sweden. Other rationales are marketing of universities more internationally, for student recruitment and research collaboration. Per UKÄ, MOOCs have several advantages for technology and pedagogy in regular programs, especially in combination with local seminars and local examinations. Investment in MOOCs will boost online education. UKÄ also found that digital pedagogy and open access, including OER, might need support to develop.(17)

The investigation also asked universities whether they offered MOOCs or planned to do so. The following universities stated that they provide or have provided MOOCs:

  • Chalmers University of Technology
  • Jönköping University
  • The Karolinska Institute
  • Lunds University
  • MID Sweden University
  • University of Stockholm

The following universities stated that they planned to offer MOOCs:

  • Blekinge Institute of Technology
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Uppsala University

In spring 2016,(18) the following MOOCs were offered:

MOOCs at the Karolinska Institute:

  • Explore Statistics with R
  • eHealth – Opportunities and Challenges
  • Behavioral Medicine: A Key to Better Health
  • Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trials in Healthcare
  • An Introduction to Global Health

MOOCs at Lund University:

  • European Business Law: Understanding the Fundamentals
  • Greening the Economy: Lessons from Scandinavia
  • Greening the Economy: Sustainable Cities
  • Global Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

OpenSNH (Collaboration network for netbased higher education) (19)

OpenSNH logotype
OpenSNH logotype

OpenSNH (Collaboration network for netbased higher education) [Samverkan för näbaserad högskoleutbildning SNH] is a repository for open academic OER. The website is an initiative by two Swedish universities and UR to provide open educational resources under thematic topics that would allowing their use and reuse in different ways. In the OpenSNH platform, material also has been included from several other Swedish universities based on an agreement with OpenSNH. SNH is member of the Sustainable Development Solution Network (SDSN).

 Logotype for
Logotype for ( is the largest teaching site. In Sweden. It offers a meeting place for teachers and anyone working in Swedish schools. Their lesson archive includes thousands of tips and ideas for teaching. The supplier archive includes all aspects of education. The jobs archive includes job postings for teachers.

Members have access to the forum and the web links of all members. In, both individuals and organizations can upload and view OER. This resource is provided by volunteers. Currently, there are over 253,000 members. Both teachers and learners use daily free open available resources for teaching and learning.

Länkskafferiet (20)

Länkskafferiet (the Link Pantry) has links to more than 4,500 sites and other digital learning resources that are suitable for schoolwork. Users choose a topic or a theme that matches a question, or they enter words in the search box. Länkskafferiets’ target groups are students, teachers, educators, and librarians. Even parents can benefit from Länkskafferiet. UniPoll AB has run Länkskafferiet since the summer of 2015, and it constantly updates the content.

Webbstjärnan (21)

Webbstjärnan (the Web star) provided by the IIS, Internet Foundation in Sweden, is making a difference for schools, teachers, and students. By Webbstjärnan IIS aims to support the work of school teachers in the use of internet and free open resources, so teachers should be able to feel safe and confident in using the internet as a tool to publish, create school projects, and to create personal websites.

The logotype for Webbstjärnan
The logotype for Webbstjärnan

Future perspectives in Sweden (22)

Open government partnership, open access, and digitization are the highest priority in Sweden. Nevertheless, no national special policy or strategy exists on OER. On one hand, the use and promotion of OER is implicit in the country’s open agenda. On the other hand, an explicit agenda does not exist in educational organizations. Therefore, educational organizations and individual educators are responsible for choosing learning materials that are both copyrighted and freely accessible. Although initiatives are flourishing, they are mainly local. Consequently, the benefits of a coordinated strategy and vision are lacking.

The Digitization Commission was established by the Swedish government in 2012 to analyze and monitor progress in terms of meeting the ICT policy goal that Sweden should become the best in world at exploiting the opportunities of digitization. The Digitization Commission is also tasked with presenting proposals for new policy actions, highlighting the benefits associated with the digital transformation, and sharing best practices. It is also responsible for managing the signatories of the Digital Agenda, which are companies, not-for-profit entities, and others who have agreed to work in line with the objectives of the ICT policy goal and monitor the progress in implementing regional digital agendas. However, the remit of the Digitization Commission ended 31 December 2016. The Digitization Commission is not alone in its examination of digitization opportunities and challenges. The group Analysis Work in the Future is one of three groups that produced the first interim report, which was based on how digitization changes the labor market. In 2015, Swedish Enterprise published Opportunities and challenges, a report on the economy and digitization. (23) In Sweden the use of open resources are growing in all sectors, both in society as such, but also in the educational sectors. Several higher education institutions are currently working on strategies for opening up education, the use of OA and OERs and MOOCs.

About the Autor

Ebba OssiannilssonDr. Ebba Ossiannilsson was awarded the EDEN Fellow title in 2014. She became an Open Education Europa Fellow in 2015. Ossiannilsson is a researcher, advisor, and consultant. She is a board member for national and international associations in the areas of open online learning and education. For example, she is Vice President of the Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE) and the Swedish Association for e-Competence, and she serves on the executive board of the European Distance and e-learning Network (EDEN). She reviews quality in open online education, Open Educational Resources (OER), and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) for The European Assocaiation of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU) and the International Council for Open and Distance Education(ICDE).

She has long served at Lund University in Sweden as an e-learning and open online learning expert with a special focus on quality. She is also a consultant for several Swedish universities in their development of quality in e-learning, online education, OERs and MOOCs. Ossiannilsson has conducted several national and international projects on OER. She was the director of research for the ICDE study that conducted a global overview of quality models and the evaluator of the SEQUENT project on quality. Ossiannilsson is a partner in the ICDE Quality Network. She is partly responsible for the Swedish site on the OER World Map. Ossiannilsson collaborates with the Commonwealth of Learning and the EC ET working group on digital and online learning. She is frequently the keynote speaker at international conferences. She has a passion for contributing to open education in the Future We Want for All.

Ossiannilsson is on the editorial board of several scientific journals. She is guest editor for the Education Sciences Journal, topical collection on MOOCs (2016). She earned her PhD at Oulu University, Finland in 2012. Her dissertation was titled Benchmarking e-learning in higher education: Lessons learned from international projects. Ossiannilsson has over 200 publications, including articles in journals, book chapters, and reports for international agencies.

Dr. Ebba Ossiannilsson
Twitter: @EbbaOssian



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